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A Collection of Animals Discover. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols.
Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings , and even genital jewellery. In modern European culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture.
The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel , which was anglicised from the Old French " jouel ",  and beyond that, to the Latin word " jocale ", meaning plaything.
In French and a few other European languages the equivalent term, joaillerie , may also cover decorated metalwork in precious metal such as objets d'art and church items, not just objects worn on the person.
Most [ quantify ] cultures at some point have had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery.
Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins.
Alternatively, jewellery has been used [ by whom? Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles , originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.
Jewellery can symbolise group membership as in the case, of the Christian crucifix or the Jewish Star of David or status as in the case of chains of office , or the Western practice of married people wearing wedding rings.
Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or to ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols such as the ankh , stones, plants, animals, body parts such as the Khamsa , or glyphs such as stylised versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art.
In creating jewellery, gemstones , coins , or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals.
The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver , or In costume jewellery , stainless steel findings are sometimes used.
Other commonly used materials include glass , such as fused-glass or enamel ; wood , often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory ; natural clay ; polymer clay ; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel.
However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give a British Assay office the body which gives U. Beads are frequently used in jewellery.
These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood , shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces , bracelets , earrings , belts and rings.
Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads , these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery.
Seed beads are also used in an embroidery technique where they are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets.
Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era , is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making.
Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures. Silversmiths , goldsmiths , and lapidaries use methods including forging , casting , soldering or welding , cutting, carving and "cold-joining" using adhesives , staples and rivets to assemble parts.
Diamonds were first mined in India. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola , Ivory Coast , Sierra Leone , and other nations have been labelled as blood diamonds when they are mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency.
The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond , part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found , at 3, Now popular in engagement rings , this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in A popular style is the diamond solitaire, which features a single large diamond mounted prominently.
Some gemstones like pearls, coral, and amber are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals.
Some gems, for example, amethyst , have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia , which can be used in place of diamond.
For platinum , gold , and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. High-polished jewellery is the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look.
Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds.
Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material similar to sandpaper against the metal, leaving "brush strokes".
Hammered finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture. Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour.
Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish.
Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, only certain ranks could wear rings;  later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery.
This was also based on rank of the citizens of that time. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role.
For example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century.
More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings , has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others.
Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling , which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.
Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise wedding rings for men, which caught on, as well as engagement rings for men, which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had medieval roots.
Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo ,  and many religions have edicts against excessive display.
In Revelation 17, "the great whore" or false religious system, is depicted as being "decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand.
The history of jewellery is long and goes back many years, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.
The earliest known Jewellery was actually created not by humans Homo sapiens but by Neanderthal living in Europe. Specifically, perforated beads made from small sea shells have been found dating to , years ago in the Cueva de los Aviones, a cave along the southeast coast of Spain.
Later in Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto , beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40, years ago.
In Russia, a stone bracelet and marble ring are attributed to a similar age. Later, the European early modern humans had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth, berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew , or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together.
In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces. The Venus of Hohle Fels features a perforation at the top, showing that it was intended to be worn as a pendant.
Around seven-thousand years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen. String of beads; BC; lapis lazuli the blue beads and travertine the white beads Egyptian alabaster ; length: 4.
String of beads; BC; carnelian , garnet , quartz and glazed steatite ; length: The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,—5, years ago.
In Predynastic Egypt jewellery soon began to symbolise political and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods.
In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass , along with semi-precious gems. The colour of the jewellery had significance.
Green, for example, symbolised fertility. Lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country's borders.
Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon.
Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies. Pendant; circa BC; gold and turquoise; overall: 5. By approximately 5, years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Mesopotamia.
The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur , where hundreds of burials dating — BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artefacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins.
In Assyria , men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets , ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals.
Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly coloured stones chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper.
Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols.
Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites.
One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:. Necklace; — BC; gold and lapis lazuli ; length: Sumerian necklaces and headgear discovered in the royal and individual graves of the Royal Cemetery at Ur, showing the way they may have been worn, in British Museum London.
The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times.
Around BC, the main techniques of working gold in Greece included casting, twisting bars, and making wire. The forms and shapes of jewellery in ancient Greece such as the armring 13th century BC , brooch 10th century BC and pins 7th century BC , have varied widely since the Bronze Age as well.
Other forms of jewellery include wreaths, earrings, necklace and bracelets. Jewellery dating from to BC is not well represented in the archaeological record, but after the Persian wars the quantity of jewellery again became more plentiful.
By BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts , pearl , and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx , a striped brown pink and cream agate stone.
Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship.
However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used. Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions.
It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by women to show their wealth, social status, and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the " Evil Eye " or endowed the owner with supernatural powers , while others had a religious symbolism.
Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods. They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal.
Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered. It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds.
The two halves were then joined together, and wax , followed by molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age.
The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to thickness and then soldered together.
The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery.
Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface. The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it.
In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected.
However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive.
Numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia , with only one example ever found anywhere else.
Mycenaean necklace; BC; gilded terracotta; diameter of the rosettes: 2. Necklace; circa BC; gold, moonstone , garnet , emerald , cornelian , baroque pearl and banded agate ; overall: Gorgons, pomegranates, acorns, lotus flowers and palms were a clear indicator of Greek influence in Etruscan jewelry.
The modelling of heads, which was a typical practice from the Greek severe period, was a technique that spread throughout the Etruscan territory.
An even clearer evidence of new influences is the shape introduced in the Orientalizing era: The Bullae. A pear shaped vessel used to hold perfume.
Much of the jewelry found was not worn by Etruscans, but were made to accompany them in the after world.
Most, if not all, techniques of Etruscan goldsmiths were not invented by them as they are dated to the third millennium BC.
The Vulci set of jewelry ; early 5th century; gold, glass, rock crystal, agate and carnelian ; various dimensions; Metropolitan Museum of Art New York City.
Earring in the form of a dolphin; 5th century BC; gold; 2. Bulla with Daedalus and Icarus ; 5th century BC; gold; 1. Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts , when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs.
The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch , which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent.
As early as 2, years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England , fossilised wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery.
The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume.
Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the "Evil Eye" given by other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring.
Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none.
Roman men and women wore rings with an engraved gem on it that was used with wax to seal documents, a practice that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes. Cameo portrait of the Emperor Augustus ; AD; sardonyx ; 3.
Bracelet; 1st-2nd century AD; gold-mounted crystal and sardonyx; length: Necklace with a medallion depicting a goddess; ; green glass the green beads and gold; length: Post-Roman Europe continued to develop jewellery making skills.
The Celts and Merovingians in particular are noted for their jewellery, which in terms of quality matched or exceeded that of the Byzantine Empire.
Clothing fasteners, amulets, and, to a lesser extent, signet rings , are the most common artefacts known to us. A particularly striking Celtic example is the Tara Brooch.
The Torc was common throughout Europe as a symbol of status and power. By the 8th century, jewelled weaponry was common for men, while other jewellery with the exception of signet rings seemed to become the domain of women.
A young girl was buried with: 2 silver fibulae , a necklace with coins , bracelet, gold earrings, a pair of hair-pins, comb, and buckle. Note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk , England are a particularly well-known example.
The Eastern successor of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire , continued many of the methods of the Romans, though religious themes came to predominate.
Unlike the Romans, the Franks, and the Celts, however, Byzantium used light-weight gold leaf rather than solid gold, and more emphasis was placed on stones and gems.
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